The Alliance of Small Island States and Least Developed Countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change, has lobbied to address loss and damage as a stand-alone issue of the Paris Agreement.  However, developed countries were concerned that classifying the issue as a separate measure going beyond adaptation measures would create another provision on climate finance or imply legal liability for catastrophic climate events. The NDC Partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to strengthen cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial support they need to achieve large-scale climate and sustainability goals. The NDC Partnership is led by a Steering Committee composed of developed and developing countries and international institutions and led by a support unit based at the World Resources Institute based in Washington, DC and Bonn, Germany. The NDC Partnership is jointly led by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and includes 93 member countries, 21 institutional partners and ten associate members. The United States, which is still ratified on the UN`s list of 187, began the process of withdrawing from the agreement in 2019 and will leave on November 4 this year. President Donald Trump doubts that greenhouse gas emissions could cause dangerous levels of global warming. Throughout his tenure, President Trump has promoted the U.S. domestic fossil fuel industry to ensure energy security. No other nation has announced that it will follow Trump and leave the Paris Agreement.
The Democratic candidates for US president all want to join him. To date, 195 countries have signed the agreement and two have ratified it without prior signature. This means that all members have acceded to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. These include all members of the United Nations, the State of Palestine, Niue and the Cook Islands, as well as the European Union. On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which is to take effect exactly one year after that date.  Climate change is a global emergency that transcends national borders. This is an issue that requires coordinated solutions at all levels and international cooperation to help countries move towards a low-carbon economy. In 2017, Donald Trump officially began withdrawing from the Paris Agreement, sending an official notice of their plans to the United Nations. Countries had to wait three years after the start of the agreement to submit a formal notification, and that`s exactly what they did in 2019.
Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing to do, only to promise” and believes that only a general tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Although the NDC is not legally binding on each Party, Parties are required by law to track their progress through expert technical assessments in order to assess the achievements of the NDC and identify ways to strengthen their ambitions.  Article 13 of the Paris Agreement establishes an “enhanced transparency framework for action and support” setting out harmonised monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) requirements. Therefore, both developed and developing countries are required to report on their mitigation efforts every two years, and all parties are subject to technical and peer review.  Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the 14-member Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. Among other things, countries must report on their greenhouse gas inventories and progress towards their targets so that external experts can assess their success. Countries should also reconsider their commitments by 2020 and set new targets every five years, with the aim of further reducing emissions. They must participate in a “global stocktaking” to measure collective efforts to achieve the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement. In the meantime, developed countries must also estimate the amount of financial assistance they will provide to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change.
The process of translating the Paris Agreement into national agendas and translating them into national agendas has begun. The commitment of the least developed countries (LDCs) is an example of this. The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative for LDCs, known as the RDSLP LDC, aims to provide clean and sustainable energy to millions of energy-intensive people in LDCs, improve access to energy, create jobs and contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.  Paris Agreement, fully Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or COP21, an international agreement, named after the City of Paris, in France, where it was adopted in December 2015 and which aimed to reduce gas emissions that contribute to global warming. .